|Statement||editor: C. Jake Waddington.|
|Series||AIP conference proceedings -- 183|
|Contributions||Waddington, C. Jake., American Institute of Physics.|
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, archeonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and paleonucleosynthesis) is the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1 H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe. Cosmic abundance tables of the chemical elements provide the basic data for theories of cosmochemistry and nuclear astrophysics. The abundances are based on a variety of terrestrial, meteoritic, solar, stellar and cosmic ray data. Figure 1 shows a schematic curve of the elemental abundances (normalized to Si equal to 10 6 atoms) as a function of mass number A. The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment. Abundance is measured in one of three ways: by the mass-fraction (the same as weight fraction); by the mole-fraction (fraction of atoms by numerical count, or sometimes fraction of molecules in gases); or by the volume-fraction. cosmic abundance of elements Based on data from the Sun and other stars, hydrogen and helium are by far the most abundant elements of the cosmos (e.g. the Sun's atmosphere may contain 70% hydrogen and 28% helium by mass). In general, elements show an exponential decrease in abundance with increasing atomic number (Z), up to about 45; the abundances of heavier elements thereafter appears .
Average solar-system composition consists of wt % hydrogen, wt % helium, and only wt % of all remaining elements, lithium to uranium. Cosmic abundances are now widely referred to as standard abundances in the astrophysical literature. See also: Astronomical spectroscopy; Element (chemistry) The content above is only an : Andrew M. Davis. It is the subject of the theory of cosmic inflation, which was developed in the last few decades and has led to a radically new global view of the universe. density issues, dark matter and energy, element abundances, structure formation and cosmic eras are also described. PART 2 deals with more speculative issues related to Big Bang by: 3. arXiv:astro-ph/v1 12 Mar Element Abundances through the Cosmic Ages† By MAX PETTINI1 1 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge Madingley Road, Cambridge, UK The horizon for studies of element abundances has expanded dramatically in the last ten years. A correct thermal average for initial dark matter particles is important, in particular, for annihilation cross sections with overall velocity dependence and/or resonance poles. We apply our general results to benchmark models for SIMP dark matter and discuss the effects of .
provide a very biased sampling of elemental abundances in the bulk Earth. Goldschmidt calculated the average concentrations of elements in cosmic matter from a weighted mean of the element abundances in meteorite phases: metal (two parts), sulfide (one part), and silicates (ten parts). In this way, he obtained the cosmic abundances of 66 elements. cosmic abundance The relative proportion of each element found in the Universe. The standard cosmic abundance is based on that of the Solar System, determined from observations of the relative line strengths in the spectrum of solar radiation, from geological surveys of the Earth, and from analysis of meteorites (see table). Cosmic Abundances Activity. This activity provides practice for reading and interpreting the log plot of solar system elemental abundances. Refer to the chart of the solar system abundances From the plot, determine the abundances of the following elements. Unfortunately, this book can't be printed from the OpenBook. If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a PDF. Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free PDF. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text.